Skip to main content

Full text of "Electrophoretic studies of turbidity removal by coagulation with ferric sulfate"

See other formats


ELECTROPHORETIC STUDIES OF 
TURBIDITY REMOVAL BY COAGULATION 
WITH FERRIC SULFATE 


gratltiuia 


ahaimftJii Dr. A, p. Blxck. for guido&ce aod eacouraeo£»nt he hee given 
during Iha Inveetlgatloit end for his generosity in the giving of hijo- 




acKnoviedges hla Indabtadness ta her. 




coagulation researoh. The author thanhe Kre. J. Q. Larso&> Ur. V. T. 
Halters, and Kr. C. Chen for their help in the aneeution and reporting 




WW39 



cffliiarrs 


loruf HT.rmv ii^rrs 



OiPTEE 


I. iKTRotneniM . . . 

n. EisTcaaL Ranw 
re. OlAfflJliHCB lasoRi 






3 

l£ 

ii 

t& 

23 

» 

30 

31 

32 

33 

33 

33 

I 

33 

76 

78 


HSUCOFJ 




■ ssiS-r-KSS&rsfsrii' 

■ KSSi'u'ii.rs.Ks^rrf' 

■ s£sis„"txaKr„fsv 


• ?^^rifJ‘ZSXiZ-TS^Sth 

■ i^STtAr^SfSSXSffSQ.' 

■ zsrLi.-sfssx^sth' 

■ K;?is.'‘."*“““"--.“r-r:. 

• S;SS‘1.Si?t55:‘2.SS‘3;“:. 

■ ss'i.Si.iss'ttrwr":. 


»• s^fs'i.s.sss'g.s;: .‘“r. 

“• s£s*i*„risrrs; 

“■ s,fg:isr r. . . . . 
”■ ?* “““ 


»■ ,~j?ss.*^^n.rsr;'. 
“■ '£S’S£.'lZir,.r^:. 





• K2SV.'ii“ "!•".* 

• KS2S.-JS'."“-‘ 

■ rs;:.ts*"““.’; 

■ SSS.-LS*,"-".*! 


liRKOivcnai 



nc^ngnlatlon 













In 1693. He found s 
fbe ftbloride of Uiei 


cod^ulfints In water 

Xn the year of Fudlor's putdlcationt V. 8. at Qolnej. 

XUlnola. began o^g a nixtvxe of faoTone aolfaie and Une for ecagu- 


dilnidnated oopperaat Tbia obeBdoal woe not triad again ontU I98B. 


highly colored water. Herrie Ion vaa prodsced iff o:ddatiac of the 


arated. Bla^^ and Paekbam” In recent ravdewa of coagulation theory 


In the preamt atudy vlU oonaac^Uy be United to that directly 


and ffiUar wna reported. Tha paper by Theriault and Clark^'* described 


alna to deteredne the affect of pH upon the rate of ^o fomatlon. 








accospaBled 




r^dd coagulation in thair 
obsaroad to be moat afraotlTa iji aatar trea^oent plantsi 

i^tara of Tacring alkalinitfi noted tiut for a given pH* eotere of 
higher alkallnitj raqulxed larger ousntltiee of coagulant to aocoapllA 
aatiefaotoT7 treatment. For any choeoi eater he eae able to reduce the 
alum dosage ^ adjusting the pH eith a strong a^d, thereby neutral- 
i^ng a portion of the alhalinity ori^mally preeent. fbe values of pB 
Ibr optimum ooagulatlen uere in the range 5,5 to ?,0, 

Late in 192^r I&Uer^^ publldied the second of the Theriaultt 
Qarki and Hiller papers* He descAbed their cccistitueit study of pr^ 

bydrosdde solutionB of various molaritiBs* Althou^ the anion coneen- 








mthln the m range 5.V to 8.5. 

In another series of testa (1S25) Hnler^'^ inveatigatsd the 
effects of various anione upon Uie foimation of floe in solutions of 
potas^um alum* Oenerally, the anions of hitter velenoe exerted 
greater influence upon cmagulaticcii and'leee nlkali bus necessary in 


The eompositdos of preoipitatea from ferrous and ferric selt 


1925 putlie 


Tlwe proQlpltetM itom 




pR va^es £.5 and &,5i auUiors streseed the Icportence of adeoxp- 

tioa ae an ioportant neohenlaa of twhidity fenovel and alaa attrlhutad 
zones of no iloo fornatdon to a chmse in partiela oharsa* 

In the slightly more than a decade since the pu^oation of 



Hatijezio 


(1961} ooagelated lyophotdc polled dat 




indepoidant ralationships 


hi^«8t effsoU 


alusjjws salts, ths hydrolysSj produsts of 
0 and assisnsd tentstiva fomnilas to tba. 




en^hasiaad ths odoaleal nsturs o£ psrtlela eharca caused ty iojiiaatlon 
as ocntxasted nt-Ui charge produced physical adsorptloii. The najority 
of their lahoratory tests nsre parfomied to dstemiiLe the apadfio 
chsnioal intsraction betveen Tcrious functicnsl gronpo noziBally found 
in ustar and the natallio coagulants in connon use, ihay lyTirlndwi that 
nstsUio malaxes other than hydrous o:ddes can be fomed as a result 
of Uia Ihteraotiona and that the Interaotioa of the fonotional groups 
can sppreeiatQy affect the pH st ihlch optdjrmin conditioua of ooagulatiai 

tests St constant pH and eenvindngly Justmod the deslrahility of 
su^ a prooeduro. 


COJiSIUTlC« I'HBJftr 





exchange Q^acity. KaoHidte and aontDarillonlta, of the ol^s uaad In 


Saoldjiita coodats of an alumina abeet and a ailios dieot iddoh 
ana eamUned to font one layer, tdiareae montaorillnalte an oi%ii*^"s 
ahoat Inolnded betuaan tw alltoa eheeta to Ibn one layer. Diaee 
layera have a definite tUoloeas. meaaurahle x^ray dlffraoUon 
methoda, id^.oh ia constant for a apeoific olayi tut the lattloea eictand 
to the irregularly trohan edgaa of the orystala ia the othar tin dirai> 
tioaa. In nter the parallel layers tend to split apart and become 

adjaoant ailica aheeta in nontmorillonite, the aurfaces of the layera 

Kaollnlte layers are held together ti^tly by hydrogen bonding bateesi 
hydroxide ions on the bottom of one layer and oxygen ione on top of tho 
next layer and tbne reeist aaparetion. A more detailed dlaeueaion of 
ol^ structure is ^yen by Sendricks.^ 

tSarshsll snd fristdll^^ hare atated one of the reeulte of the 
structural differenoss between kaolinite and montaorillanite. Ihe base 
exchange capecity of kaoUnlts Tarias with partiola sisa, therese tha 
bass exchange capeeity of monteorillonlte ie alxost independent of 
particle eite. 


Partiole eite ia the p r o p erty upon idiioh the of 









crystals ara Dseatlvely di 


eharse raversal. 




loond and Ijirportant aourca of partiolB 
15 charged are protains and ion 


Joined tv peptide Unkages. Sees eC these anino aedde carry an ad> 


Aicong the other mocbanlsoa vhich can oauea partidLe ohargs are 
ohesieoxption and adeozption of apedfio ions resulting from ran der 
Vaal's forces. For particles thieh are ch^ged ty the adsorp^on of 
apecdfic lone, the eurfaoa charge danaity is greatly affected by concan- 




the separation of theoe charges, electrohsntrality is disturhsd only on 




>1011111?. Thu«, m flnl ourrounding and «iy naar eaoh 


oceura onJj In tlia aolotlon wry oloaal? surrounding aaoh ohargtd 
partiolo. Throughout the rest of the suaponding nadlum olootro. 

Whan ua speak of elaotroneutralit? and areas of excess ehargs 
vs la^iUclUy assume that the eondltlens we deaerlbe are the aTorags 
with respect to tlae and spsoe, of the several dynamo equllibrlo uh 
prevail. Brownian movsneot U one spatial «[uim)ri\m which mat be 
averaged. Ion sxohango la a physlco-eheaioal eouilibrluni of oonslde 
able affect. Saoh of the equilibria) Including these two. cause 


d ayataas. Probably 


ly ttelnholts.^ Pig. 1 la a 


particle Is charged. 


j-SURFACE 0 


I. 


FIG.1 -THE HELMHOLTZ LAYER MODEL 




- 17 - 

6 flurfacs perallal to and vary naar tha anrfaca 
of tha particla. Hia sodal ia analosoua to a parallal plate eondanaar. 


intarfaca that aorrespoada vith the aloaciaaa. 

ns. 2 daptota the Oouy^hapnarP^ nodal which ia samad for the 
two acientlsta who nrat consldarad It in detail. They recosnilad the 
Halnholta aaaanption to ha an ovaraiaplifloatlcm of the apatial 

agitation would prevent aucb an uniform arranganent of gageniona, they 
propoaed a diffoaa layer of variable bat finite thiokneaa lAiob con. 




looatad naar tha partiola upon tha attractive force anlsting batwean 
tha particle and the more dlatant countariona. Tha proposed sodol ia 






In addition to tha gageniona which are attl 




a Shaath of tha solvent ia tightly bound to lyo^iilic colloida . Ihia 




If an elootric field ia inpreeaad upon a colloid ayatan. tha 
aolloids nigrata toward the pole of opposite oharga at a 




GOUY-CHAPMAN DIFFUSE LAYER 



FK3. 2 -THE GOUY-CHAPMAN 
DIFFUSE LAYER MODEL 


proportio 




19 - 




velMlty of o charged colloid in on eleotrio field depends is celled 
the eats poteniiel,S . rhs movecoent of the oherged colloid that is 



face of tlw colloid, k section of tlie 3tem nodel and a typical poten. 
tial carve for it appear in ng. 3* 1° addition to the seta potential 
ar4 tie surface potential>lt^ . tie potential at the interface between 
tie Stem layer and the Oony-Chapman portion of tie double diffuse 


■IVli.N3J.Od'®'’’ 


tD ; 

:e 


•STERN LAYER 

I 

h— SURFACE OF 

I © © © 


SHEAR 

BULK OF 
SOLUTION 



DISTANCE 




FIG. 3 -THE STERN LAYER MODEL 


Uysr is lndie»Md and raprasentsd by the syioboll^ . 

Ihe Bodele desertbed above are uaefui aa they provide a besla 
for appiecUtUig the phamnena «hleb Influence the itaMUty or Isata. 

of a given colloidal suapenaion. The prinary pbenceenon favor- 
ing etablUty la, of oourae, the mutually repalalve force betaeen 
almilarly charged coUolde. 

* particle elth Its oonplete double layer la eleotrioelly 




layers Inte^aatrato and interact. Should the two particle snrfacea 
finally touch, there could be no more diffuse layere between them to 
screen then froo the effeot of the repulsive coulooblc force. It le 
the work required to thus distort and finally destroy a part of tbs 






potential 


- » - 




exert effeeta upon particle oharge eoct potenUel. The Sehulze^rdy 
oounterlcipe era more potent In tne production of inatat411ty then mono- 






- 25 - 



SIPERlHBtTAl HATBRIAIS 




(1) Jar 


{Z) tba detanniAation oohiUtiaa for t&a floeculatijig coUcAda iJi 


Final dlsaalTdd iron Bontantt final pfi, and initial and final turbidity 
ef tba Jar last auapasaicda uera maasurad, and (S valuaa of nbiUt; 





IS Iron (rs+*) 
1 Iron (7s**+) 


Pros Add (as B^O,) 






ifi glass slals havi!ig tight-fitting polyethylana 


Bacauss tha tQrdrolys 




aoncentratian vas prapareS dali^, Ona of tha presiously uei^iad 
iUquants vas qnantltaUvs^ transfeiTaii to a ZDO-il Tolumatrio flaslt, 


tasntf ednutas vas ailovad for tho wixljig, which was aeeoasUshod with 





the fiaal suepenelen, s 


sejarau etioare Jsps ehieh ««r« pleeed on the mltlple lihoretoty 
etirrer (hereafter referred to as the Jar teat naeblne). The remaining 

?leo<mletlen . The floooulaUon proceoa was begun by rapidly 
stirring the suepenatona ehlle adding the oorreet coagulant dosage to 
each of tie six auepenslane. After receiving the ooagulant dosages, the 
suspensions mre mined rapidly for 2 mnutes and than aiouly for 28 
nimtes. next the stlrrtng paddles sere removed, and the suspensions 


; appeared that higher rates night oauae disintegration 

• at the and of the oedlnentatlon period 250 -ml •=■^1.. 
I each Jar. An apjeratus similar to that doaonbod by 


>, Richmond, Virginia. 



presMit V-M cSeslMlly « jiiysioally iousd *« floe particlee of such 
—on *uo * ths7 did not settle ott in the short settlins period 






apid $ajid 


sa aadlmenta- 


jar MBla Dora oaarly analojaiM to plant condltiona . Tha tnjn oontont 
or aavaral aanplaa ws dotarainad *tho« prior nitration. In a later 

vith results for aifflilar nitared aaoiplas. Iha rarlanoa oT iron eoitent 
bstaaen tfto tw kinds of saa^les enjiiasltes tha necessitf for nitration. 
Tba phananthroUne nathod appearing in Katheds**^ vaa 


followed for the Iron datansinaUons. i filter and a ?5 -bh light 



tha oolorinatrio iron detarainatioas . 




Sataminatif«? 


Dosing and nlnijit . A period of four to eight hours usuaUy 
aUpsad after tha nral dilation of the oley suepenslone beforo 
nobility dotaminatlons were Bade. In order to attain thoroughly ataad 




alnatlons . The individual euspeneiona vere dosed with the appropriate 
ajooujTte of eoagulant at the beginning of tha oixing. 


Inetrunenta, 




- 3 >>- 


tha procedure 


«d in Hatj3Dd3 ,^ Jl tedel RCI6HL Canduc- 

pip4tt«-fDm eoiiduotivity cbU haTlsi; a sail cod- 


>r eaA suapaoBioa vaa laaaaurai 





suesaatad lathoda at EUek and SHth util ba dalinaatad apeamoaUy. 

ae Erisja call la eonatipotad of Pyra:/ glaaa. Its rectanffllar 
orosa-aaotloMl diapa and araa axe praatically omatant orar tha eantxal 
portitai of ita lon^tndlnal axis. 1 filling funnal ia looatad at one 
and, and raeovabla elaotrodae and outlet stopcooka are cosoaotsd to 



^yrax la a product of the 
^chlgan. 




- 33 - 



FIG. 4. - THE BRIGGS CELL. 



- 37 - 




nlrg ftnd «ndln2 of «aoh d«7*B deteralutloss to be eon thst the Bicro. 


)d to pull eleenlng us 




-38- 


- 39 - 




eOWjUUST EOiiOSS 


“5 


«5 








larger partial af i 


Prctoyir tbs ffiost csssing^^ Dccfsri* 


Bs/X of aliiB aM 3.0 sf/1 of farrlo suX^ts, (2^ 5*0 ai/X of alus and 
5.0 Hs/1 of fsrrio sulfats, and t3) 100 ag/1 of aim aad 50 cg/1 of 


and the hi^tast doaafos of tha ta-o etudiaa lapraaant eonnannrationa 
The ohirtoa of a satiefaotrtY crite r ion of good ooagoIatioQ ia 


partiodlarX^ difficult. Adaouata coagulation mist result in an ex- 
trezelp- hiEh degree of turtidity renocal. the optical property, tmliid - 
ity, nuso te relied upon ea an index of renoval effioieccy. Use of this 


47ty jj Bog p lle 




sftBtad !ln TsUa s. Tba suspensloBS oar.taln aoual gravlBatrle fiancactra. 
tlgfie oT tha t^rae clays* bet tbe tuybidiblsB tb«y exhibit are widely 


cocacnly used requiraa that the tejhidity of eoa|ulatad and settled 




host to the tuTtidity of a auspardlon . XoreaTei'i the eelaction of a 
specific residual turbidity as the critarior. ifould ba to rso.uira a Euiob 
larger recavol effieiardy for the Vac Unite suspeoslcn (initial turbidity: 
29b units) than for ths mmljnorilloniU (initial turhiiityt J3 units). 

I^olchs:^^ has arbitrarily chosen as his ooaguletion oritarioa 


is undesirablai teoause it differs so widely from aacaptable conditions 



tation of clay and ocapjlant desaga have bean graphed as funotlorm of 
Both grapha for a single pettmtation n^aar in the aaae figure. 
Ciha rasldual turbidities are expressed as percentages of the initial 
turbidi^ of saoh 




the turhldi^ 


ntaoriilooite 


50 mg/1 of ferric eulfete respec- 


1= ?iEi 5> PK is Ohssnred to exert miMP influence cjon itont- 
aoril loirt U Bohility in the absonoe of eny coagulant. ?ijiel tupoldlty 
Is little affected ty pH. Sose thrtddity renoval wts acccapUshed hy 

olarlflcation so achieved vas not sistlflcent. 

Hair.ah'B**^ eleotropboretdo studios revealed that the cntdlity of 
Uw suspended clay alone uaa relatively independent of pH, bit the nagni- 
tude of the aohilities he reported we aporoajrhtely 30 per cent aicaller 


InvestdgatlQn. Cie latter e^ee 


joioh noro oloaely vith the naylimu i negative alay oobilitiaa reported by 




oanaideratlon of flguree belon vUl indicate, the graph of the notliiiy 


negatlvfl aoialllttes observehle for the sucpensione and coagulant under 
ocosideretion. In view of this relationship, cntparison of nobilities 


le equipment end prooedire for mobility oe 


capable of introducing ai error of su^ sloe and eonsieteacy. Ihe 





FIG. 5. -THE EFFECT OF pH AND 
MOBILITY UPON COAGULATION . 
CLAY ; MONTMORILLDNITE FERRIC 
SULFATE DOSAGE; 0.0 MG / L 




3-ng to oaV ton or firteon per cent of the f\iU ecsla reedj^. the error 
Involved dn the deterodjistion ca^ be six to tea tixee as large as that 






FIG. 6. -THE EFFECT OF pH AND 
MOBILITY UPON COAGULATION 
CLAY : MONTMORILLONITE FERRIC 
SULFATE DOSAGE: 3.0 MG / L 


-V- 


23456789 10 11 



FiG. 7 -THE EFFECT OF pH AND 
MOBILITY UPON COAGULATION. 
CLAY : MONTMORILLONITE FERRIC 
SULFATE DOSAGE: 5.0 MG / L 


234567891011 



FIG. 8. - THE EFFECT OF pH AND 
MOBILITY UPON COAGULATION , 
CLAY : MONTMORILUONITE FERRIC 
SULFATE DOSAGE: 50. MG / L 


-1*7 - 



23456789 10 11 



RG. 9, -THE EFFECT OF pH AND 
MOBILITY UPON COAGULATION 
CLAY; MONTMORILLONITE 



FIG. 10- -THE EFFECT OF pH AND 
MOBILITY UPON COAGULATION 
CLAY: FULLER'S EARTH FERRIC 
SULFATE DOSAGE: 0 0 MG / L 


23456789 10 11 



RG. 11. -THE EFFECT OF pH AND 
MOBILITY UPON COAGULATION. 
CLAY: FULLER'S EARTH FERRIC 
SULFATE DOSAGE: 3.0 MG / L 



- 52- 


23456789 10 11 



FIG. 12 , - THE EFFECT OF p H AND 
MOBILITY UPON COAGULATION . 
CLAY ; FULLER'S EARTH FERRIC 
SULFATE DOSAGE; 5.0 MG / L 



FIG. 13. - THE EFFECT OF pH AND 
MOBILITY UPON COAGULATION 
CLAY; FULLER'S EARTH FERRIC 
SULFATE DOSAGE; 50. MG / L 


- 5fc- 



FiG.14. - THE EFFECT OF pH AND 
MOBILITY UPON COAG"LATION 
CLAY; FULLER'S EARTH 


- 55 - 


23456789 10 11 



FIG, 15. - THE EFFECT OF pH AND 
MOBILITY UPON COAGULATION . 
CLAY : KAOLINITE FERRIC 

SULFATE DOSAGE: 0.0 MG / L 


-ss- 



F1G.16. -THE EFFECT OF pH AND 
MOBILITY UPON COAGULATION . 
CLAY : KAOLINITE FERRIC 

SULFATE DOSAGE; 3.0 MG / L 


- 57 - 


23456789 10 11 



FIG. 17 -THE EFFECT OF pH AND 
MOBILITY UPON COAGULATION . 
CLAY ; KAOLINITE FERRIC 

SULFATE DOSAGE: 5.0 MG / L 


- 58 . 



pH 


FIG.18. -THE EFFECT OF pH AND 
MOBILITY UPON COAGULATION . 
CLAY : KAOLlNiTE FERRIC 

SULFATE DOSAGE: 50. MG / L 


- 59 - 



F1G.19, -THE EFFECT OF pH AHC 
MOBILITY UPON COASUi.A’^iO.N 
CLAY; KAOLINITE' 


. 60 . 



and for V;aoUnit« U 
Hbioh HouXd ;lold n 










irg oboorvatios vhLob la Banel«ll7 appllaable for tbo ferrlo sulf&ta 
ooOBUlatlon of Cbe tbrao claya la that roaldual iroa Taluaa aro losa 


.61. 



pH 


RG.20.-THE EFFECT OF pH ON IRON 
RESIDUAL, CLAY: MONTMORILLONITE 

FERRIC SULFATE DOSAGE: 3.0 MG/L 



pH 


FIG.21. -THE EFFECT OF pH ON IRON 
RESIDUAL. CLAY: MONTMORILLONITE 

FERRIC SULFATE DOSAGE: 5.0 MG/L 


RESIDUAL IRON (MS/L) 


- 63 . 



pH 


FIG.22.-THE EFFECT OF pH ON IRON 
RESIDUAL. CLAY; MONTMORILLONITE 
FERRIC SULFATE DOSAGE: 50. MG/L 


2 3456789 10 11 



pH 


FIG. 23- THE EFFECT OF pH ON IRON 
RESIDUAL. CLAY: FULLER'S EARTH 

FERRIC SULFATE DOSAGE: 3.0 MG/L 


-65- 



FIG.24.-THE EFFECT OF pH ON IRON 
RESIDUAL. CLAY: FULLER'S EARTH 

FERRIC SULFATE DOSAGE; 5.0 MG/L 


- u. 


23456789 10 11 



FIG. 25.- THE EFFECT OF pH ON IRON 
RESIDUAL. CLAY; FULLER'S EARTH 
FERRIC SULFATE DOSAGE; 50. MG/L 


- 67 - 


23456789 10 11 



pH 


FIG. 26- THE EFFECT OF pH ON IRON 
RESIDUAL CLAY: KAOLINITE 
FERRIC SULFATE DOSAGE; 3,0 MG/L 


. £8 . 


2 3456789 10 11 



pH 


FIG. 27 -THE EFFECTOR pH ON IRON 

RESIDUAL CLAY: KAOLINITE 

FERRIC SULFATE DOSAGE; 5.0 MG/L 


. 69 • 


2 3456789 10 11 



pH 


FIG. 28- THE EFFECT OF pH ON IRON 

RESIDUAL. CLAY: KAOLINITE 

FERRIC SULFATE DOSAGE: 50. MG/L 






parable coagulaot dosages iji colored siator that are six tijnes as large 








the pfl of the saaplss imployed for nol^Jily datermlaattoas were Identical 
with the of tbs oorrespoDdihg Jar test saapsnslons. Flgursa 29» 30, 
31, ard 32 show ths cloec agrssiMt bstwaon the respective ^ valnss. 




eicns tMch vsre used care synthetic preparations oontainihg 50 ng/1 of 






obiltty asd turbidity 


- n - 


23456789 10 11 



nG.29.- QUANTITIES OF ACID OR BASE 
REQUIRED FOR pH ADJUSTMENT OF 
FULLER'S EARTH. 


23456789 10 11 



FIG. 30.- QUANTITIES OF ACID OR BASE 
REQUIRED FOR pH ADJUSTMENT OF 
FULLER'S EARTH. 


- 73 - 


23456789 10 11 



FIG, 31. - QUANTITIES OF ACID OR BASE 
REQUIRED FOR pH ADJUSTMENT OF 
FULLERS EARTH . 



pH 


FiS.32. - QUANTiTiES OF ACID OR BASE 
REQUIRED FOR pH ADJUSTMENT OF 
FULLER'S EARTH. 



FIG. 33. - QUANTITIES OF ACID OR BASE 
REQUIRED FOR pH ADJUSTMENT OF 
FULLER'S EARTH . 



agulatijm 


'parable dasagaa 




- 77 - 


ability or organie i 




ral, tbjbid aat«r. Farther study is necessaiy to detonBioe 
is u "overdosed isoeleatric point" for natural, turbid 


good orthohinetic 


sgulation. 




3aSiSRR & 




ft « SI s s s 


&SRSS Srgft 


CO & S ^ S' 






J 






•s s 

1^1 




n 

s ^ 


s s 





14 




it 



~ 8 

li 

1 & 





- 90 - 








Ill 

rl 

Ih 

i 3 

£r fl 

Is 

q 

» •? 

ll. 

It" 

S3 

i| 

Vi 

saf 

s|l 

S. S 

if 


s| 

1 6 

Is 

1 £ 








i4 


'3 


* 

II 


|l 

ll® 

s 

P 



* 

’si" 

41 


ll 


i1 

s 

li 

a 



tistasr-jss: 



afiafflESKttK'jJsr*--* — 


KS'ss ri». 
»A ^»asar a; s Er AS-.Bs:” 
asassrs.i'ssar 


BsSS- 


;£jgs.::g^^:.i"'^.. 


£-S;,V.-;,.ga.°' S;.-g^a .Sa ,SBr 
|^;g||:-iaSE-»VS 


sssaiL-g s»i£. 'sssc ssgat Sm. 


££S=~eSct? 

£‘S;J;.a-S; -iWEri .TiISIS: 


=‘- ssi.‘iir •’ “"■* 

»■ sr£:.Vi,s-sr- ■’ - 






“• sSs~srSS“ 



“■ aia-s's.s: a ssB'X'Ssr.r-ag ^- 
•’■ afarrts: z s?gr^;.~air,!-5r” - 
“■ sga,rrts: - s; - s?^r;;:tg-*.“3" ' 
»■ £Sui:;T.r£-ii.?3s:r-iiS^ 




KoafUiraicAL 


Janes Vernon Haltere h»s bora Kay 13, 1S3, at Dublin, Georsia. 
In Jana, I93I, he me rradualed froa Dublin High School. Ha reoelvad 
the desreo of Baehalor of Clell Baglnaarlne in June, 1955i from the 





Ourins June, 1938, ha raealvad the degree of Hester of 
laser of Civil TCngJ nearing in Fabmary, 1959. P.e een- 






Daniall. They have tvo 


aty, the Amerleen Society 
Engineering Education, the 


S«rvlea, tbt AlAteiu Public Healtb Icspclaticni the Alpbana Uetar ind 
Seucp As&ociation, ?cnj Beta Pi, 3i^ Xi, Chi Epcilcnr Cni SigDAi 
Phi Kappa and Kappa Kappa Pai. 






OsUofe of EhglnsozlJiK and to tho Qraduata Couoeli, and hob approved 
aa partial fulfUljBant of tde redulrotcentB for the dofiraa of tootor of 


Ptdloaophy* 




Supervisory Coamittoat 



V(L;.1A.T